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Daily Archives: December 29, 2010

Paul’s Non-Titular Use of "The Lord"

This post is related to a post I made last year. Here are some places where Paul uses the non-titular “the lord”, traditionally a Jewish circumlocution for saying YHWH:

1 Cor 1
31 ινα καθως γεγραπται ο καυχωμενος εν κυριω καυχασθω
31 Therefore, as it is written: “Let him who boasts boast in the Lord”

1 Cor 3
5 τι ουν εστιν απολλως τι δε εστιν παυλος διακονοι δι ων επιστευσατε και εκαστω ως ο κυριος εδωκεν
5 What, after all, is Apollos? And what is Paul? Only servants, through whom you came to believe–as the Lord has assigned to each his task

1 Cor 4
4 ουδεν γαρ εμαυτω συνοιδα αλλ ουκ εν τουτω δεδικαιωμαι ο δε ανακρινων με κυριος εστιν
4 My conscience is clear, but that does not make me innocent. It is the Lord who judges me

5 ωστε μη προ καιρου τι κρινετε εως αν ελθη ο κυριος ος και φωτισει τα κρυπτα του σκοτους και φανερωσει τας βουλας των καρδιων και τοτε ο επαινος γενησεται εκαστω απο του θεου
5 Therefore judge nothing before the appointed time; wait till the Lord comes. He will bring to light what is hidden in darkness and will expose the motives of men’s hearts. At that time each will receive his praise from God
17 δια τουτο επεμψα υμιν τιμοθεον ος εστιν μου τεκνον αγαπητον και πιστον εν κυριω ος υμας αναμνησει τας οδους μου τας εν χριστω [ιησου] καθως πανταχου εν παση εκκλησια διδασκω
17 For this reason I am sending to you Timothy, my son whom I love, who is faithful in the Lord. He will remind you of my way of life in Christ Jesus, which agrees with what I teach everywhere in every
church
19 ελευσομαι δε ταχεως προς υμας εαν ο κυριος θεληση και γνωσομαι ου τον λογον των πεφυσιωμενων αλλα την δυναμιν
19 But I will come to you very soon, if the Lord is willing, and then I will find out not only how these arrogant people are talking, but what power they have.

1 Cor 5
5 παραδουναι τον τοιουτον τω σατανα εις ολεθρον της σαρκος ινα το πνευμα σωθη εν τη ημερα του κυριου
5 hand this man over to Satan, so that the sinful nature [or flesh] may be destroyed and his spirit saved on the day of the Lord

1 Cor 6
13 τα βρωματα τη κοιλια και η κοιλια τοις βρωμασιν ο δε θεος και ταυτην και ταυτα καταργησει το δε σωμα ου τη πορνεια αλλα τω κυριω και ο κυριος τω σωματι
13 “Food for the stomach and the stomach for food”–but God will destroy them both. The body is not meant for sexual immorality, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body

14 ο δε θεος και τον κυριον ηγειρεν και ημας εξεγερει δια της δυναμεως αυτου
14 By his power God raised the Lord from the dead, and he will raise us also

17 ο δε κολλωμενος τω κυριω εν πνευμα εστιν
17 But he who unites himself with the Lord is one with him in spirit

1 Cor 7
10 τοις δε γεγαμηκοσιν παραγγελλω ουκ εγω αλλα ο κυριος γυναικα απο ανδρος μη χωρισθηναι
10 To the married I give this command (not I, but the Lord): A wife must not separate from her husband.

17 ει μη εκαστω ως μεμερικεν ο κυριος εκαστον ως κεκληκεν ο θεος ουτως περιπατειτω και ουτως εν ταις εκκλησιαις πασαις διατασσομαι
17 Nevertheless, each one should retain the place in life that the Lord assigned to him and to which God has called him. This is the rule I lay down in all the churches

22 ο γαρ εν κυριω κληθεις δουλος απελευθερος κυριου εστιν ομοιως ο ελευθερος κληθεις δουλος εστιν χριστου
22 For he who was a slave when he was called by the Lord is the Lord’s freedman; similarly, he who was a free man when he was called is Christ’s slave

25 περι δε των παρθενων επιταγην κυριου ουκ εχω γνωμην δε διδωμι ως ηλεημενος υπο κυριου πιστος ειναι
25 Now about virgins: I have no command from the Lord, but I give a judgment as one who by the Lord’s mercy is trustworthy

32 θελω δε υμας αμεριμνους ειναι ο αγαμος μεριμνα τα του κυριου πως αρεση τω κυριω
32 I want you to be free from concern. An unmarried man is concerned about the Lord’s affairs–how he can please the Lord

34 και μεμερισται και η γυνη η αγαμος και η παρθενος μεριμνα τα του κυριου ινα η αγια [και] τω σωματι και τω πνευματι η δε γαμησασα μεριμνα τα του κοσμου πως αρεση τω ανδρι
34 and his interests are divided. An unmarried woman or virgin is concerned about the Lord’s affairs: Her aim is to be devoted to the Lord in both body and spirit. But a married woman is concerned about the affairs of this world–how she can please her husband.

35 τουτο δε προς το υμων αυτων συμφορον λεγω ουχ ινα βροχον υμιν επιβαλω αλλα προς το ευσχημον και ευπαρεδρον τω κυριω απερισπαστως
35 I am saying this for your own good, not to restrict you, but that you may live in a right way in undivided devotion to the Lord

39 γυνη δεδεται εφ οσον χρονον ζη ο ανηρ αυτης εαν δε κοιμηθη ο ανηρ ελευθερα εστιν ω θελει γαμηθηναι μονον εν κυριω
39 A woman is bound to her husband as long as he lives. But if her husband dies, she is free to marry anyone she wishes, but he must belong to the Lord

1 Cor 9
1 ουκ ειμι ελευθερος ουκ ειμι αποστολος ουχι ιησουν τον κυριον ημων εορακα ου το εργον μου υμεις εστε εν κυριω
1 Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are you not the result of my work in the Lord

2 ει αλλοις ουκ ειμι αποστολος αλλα γε υμιν ειμι η γαρ σφραγις μου της αποστολης υμεις εστε εν κυριω
2 Even though I may not be an apostle to others, surely I am to you! For you are the seal of my apostleship in the Lord

5 μη ουκ εχομεν εξουσιαν αδελφην γυναικα περιαγειν ως και οι λοιποι αποστολοι και οι αδελφοι του κυριου και κηφας
5 Don’t we have the right to take a believing wife along with us, as do the other apostles and the Lord’s brothers and Cephas

14 ουτως και ο κυριος διεταξεν τοις το ευαγγελιον καταγγελλουσιν εκ του ευαγγελιου ζην
14 In the same way, the Lord has commanded that those who preach the gospel should receive their living from the gospel

1 Cor 10
9 μηδε εκπειραζωμεν τον κυριον καθως τινες αυτων επειρασαν και υπο των οφεων απωλλυντο
9 We should not test the Lord, as some of them did–and were killed by snakes

21 ου δυνασθε ποτηριον κυριου πινειν και ποτηριον δαιμονιων ου δυνασθε τραπεζης κυριου μετεχειν και τραπεζης δαιμονιων
21 You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons too; you cannot have a part in both the Lord’s table and the table of demons

22 η παραζηλουμεν τον κυριον μη ισχυροτεροι αυτου εσμεν
22 Are we trying to arouse the Lord’s jealousy? Are we stronger than he?

26 “του κυριου” γαρ “η γη και το πληρωμα αυτης”
26 for, “The earth is the Lord’s, and everything in it.”

1 Cor 11
11 πλην ουτε γυνη χωρις ανδρος ουτε ανηρ χωρις γυναικος εν κυριω
11 In the Lord, however, woman is not independent of man, nor is man independent of woman

32 κρινομενοι δε υπο του κυριου παιδευομεθα ινα μη συν τω κοσμω κατακριθωμεν
32 When we are judged by the Lord, we are being disciplined so that we will not be condemned with the world

1 Cor 14
21 εν τω νομω γεγραπται οτι εν ετερογλωσσοις και εν χειλεσιν ετερων λαλησω τω λαω τουτω και ουδ ουτως εισακουσονται μου λεγει κυριος
21 In the Law it is written: “Through men of strange tongues and through the lips of foreigners I will speak to this people, but even then they will not listen to me,” says the Lord

37 ει τις δοκει προφητης ειναι η πνευματικος επιγινωσκετω α γραφω υμιν οτι κυριου εστιν εντολη
37 If anybody thinks he is a prophet or spiritually gifted, let him acknowledge that what I am writing to you is the Lord’s command

1 Cor 15
58 ωστε αδελφοι μου αγαπητοι εδραιοι γινεσθε αμετακινητοι περισσευοντες εν τω εργω του κυριου παντοτε ειδοτες οτι ο κοπος υμων ουκ εστιν κενος εν κυριω
58 Therefore, my dear brothers, stand firm. Let nothing move you. Always give yourselves fully to the work of the Lord, because you know that your labor in the Lord is not in vain

1 Cor 16
7 ου θελω γαρ υμας αρτι εν παροδω ιδειν ελπιζω γαρ χρονον τινα επιμειναι προς υμας εαν ο κυριος επιτρεψη
7 I do not want to see you now and make only a passing visit; I hope to spend some time with you, if the Lord permits

 10 εαν δε ελθη τιμοθεος βλεπετε ινα αφοβως γενηται προς υμας το γαρ εργον κυριου εργαζεται ως εγω
10 If Timothy comes, see to it that he has nothing to fear while he is with you, for he is carrying on the work of the Lord, just as I am

19 ασπαζονται υμας αι εκκλησιαι της ασιας ασπαζεται υμας εν κυριω πολλα ακυλας και πρισκα συν τη κατ οικον αυτων εκκλησια

19 The churches in the province of Asia send you greetings. Aquila and Priscilla greet you warmly in the Lord

22 ει τις ου φιλει τον κυριον ητω αναθεμα μαρανα θα
22 If anyone does not love the Lord–a curse be on him. Marana Tha [Come, O Lord]

Gal 1:19
ετερον δε των αποστολων ουκ ειδον ει μη ιακωβον τον αδελφον του κυριου
I saw none of the other apostles–only James, the Lord’s brother

Gal 5:10
εγω πεποιθα εις υμας εν κυριω οτι ουδεν αλλο φρονησετε ο δε ταρασσων υμας βαστασει το κριμα οστις εαν η
I am confident in the Lord that you will take no other view. The one who is throwing you into confusion will pay the penalty, whoever he may be

Philemon 1:16
ουκετι ως δουλον αλλ’ υπερ δουλον αδελφον αγαπητον μαλιστα εμοι ποσω δε μαλλον σοι και εν σαρκι και εν κυριω
no longer as a slave, but better than a slave, as a dear brother. He is very dear to me but even dearer to you, both as a man and as a brother in the Lord

Philippians 1:14
και τους πλειονας των αδελφων εκ κυριω πεποιθοτας τοις δεσμοις μου περισσοτερως τολμαν αφοβως τον λογον του θεου λαλειν
Because of my chains, most of the brothers in the Lord have been encouraged to speak the word of God more courageously and fearlessly

1 Thess 1
6 και υμεις μιμηται ημων εγενηθητε και του κυριου δεξαμενο τον λογον εν θλιψει τολλη μετα χαρας πνευματος αγιου
6 [And] You became imitators of us and of the Lord; in spite of severe suffering, you welcomed the message with the joy given by the Holy Spirit

8 αφ’ υμων γαρ εξηχηται ο λογος του κυριου ου μονον εν τη Μακεδονια και Αχαια αλλ’ εν παντι τοπω η πιστις υμων η προς τον θεον εξεληλυθεν, ωστε μη χρειαν εχειν ημας λαλειν τι
8 The Lord’s message rang out from you not only in Macedonia and Achaia–your faith in God has become known everywhere. Therefore we do not need to say anything about it

1 Thess 3
8 οτι νυν ζωμεν εαν υμεις στηκετε εν κυριω
8 For now we really live, since you are standing firm in the Lord

12 υμας δε ο κυριος πλεονασαι και περισσευσαι τη αγαπη εις αλληλους και εις παντας καθεπερ και ημεις εις υμας
12 May the Lord make your love increase and overflow for each other and for everyone else, just as ours does for you

CONTESTED LETTERS / ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟ ΠΑΥΛΟΣ

2 Thess 1
9 οιτινες δικην τοσουσιν ολεθρον αιωνιον απ προσωπου του κυριου και απο της δοξης της ισχους αυτου
9 They will be punished with everlasting destruction and shut out from the presence of the Lord and from the majesty of his power

2 Thess 2
2 το μη ταχεως σαλευθηναι υμας απο του νοος μηδε θροεσθαι μητε δια πνευματος μητε δια λογου μητε δι’ επιστολης ως δι’ ημων ως οτι ενεστηκεν η ημερα του κυριου

2 not to become easily unsettled or alarmed by some prophecy, report or letter supposed to have come from us, saying that the day of the Lord has already come

13 Ημεις δε οφειλομεν ευχαριστειν τω θεω παντοτε περι υμων αδελφοι ηγαπημενοι υπο κυριου οτι ειλατο υμας ο θεος απ’ αρχης εις σωτηριαν εν αγιασμω πνευματος και πιστει αληθειας
13 But we ought always to thank God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because from the beginning God chose you to be saved through the sanctifying work of the Spirit and through belief in the truth

2 Thess 3
1 Το λοιπον προσευχερθε αδελφοι περι ημων ινα ο λογος του κυριου τρεχη και δξαζηται καθως και προς υμας
1 Finally, brothers, pray for us that the message of the Lord may spread rapidly and be honored, just as it was with you

3 πιστος δε εστιν ο κυριος ος στηριξει υμας και φυλαξει απο του πονηρου
3 But the Lord is faithful, and he will strengthen and protect you from the evil one

4 πεποιθαμεν δε εν κυριω εφ’ υμας οτι α παραγγελλομεν [και] ποιειτε και ποιησετε
4 We have confidence in the Lord that you are doing and will continue to do the things we command

5 ο δε κυριος κατευθυναι υμων τας καρδιας εις την αγαπην του θεου και εις την υπομονην του χριστου
5 May the Lord direct your hearts into God’s love and Christ’s perseverance.

16 αυτος δε ο κυριος της ειρηνης δωη υμιν την ειρηνην δια παντος εν παπι τροπω ο κυριος μετα παντων υμων
16 Now may the Lord of peace himself give you peace at all times and in every way. The Lord be with all of you

Col 1
10 περιπατησαι αξιων του κυριου εις πασαν αρεσκειαν εν παντι εργω αγαθω καρποφορουντες και αυξανομενοι τη επιγνωσει του θεου
10 And we pray this in order that you may live a life worthy of the Lord and may please him in every way: bearing fruit in every good work, growing in the knowledge of God

Col 3
13 ανεχομενοι αλληλων και χαριζομενοι εαυτοις εαν τις προς τινα εχη μομφην καθως και ο κυριος εχαρισατο υμιν ουτως και υμεις
13 Bear with each other and forgive whatever grievances you may have against one another. Forgive as the Lord forgave you

18 Αι γυναικες υποτασσεσθε τοις ανδρασιν ως ανηκεν εν κυριω
18 Wives, submit to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord

20 τα τεκνα υπακουετε τοις γονευσιν κατα παντα τουτο γαρ ευαρεστον εστιν εν κυριω
20 Children, obey your parents in everything, for this pleases the Lord

22 οι δουλοι υπακουετε κατα παντα τοις κατα σαρκα κυριοις μη εν οφθαλμουδουλιας ως ανθρωπορεσκοι αλλ’ εν απλοτητι καρδιας φοβουμενοι τον κυριον
22 Slaves, obey your earthly masters in everything; and do it, not only when their eye is on you and to win their favor, but with sincerity of heart and reverence for the Lord.

23 ο εαν ποιητε εκ ψυχης εργαζεσθε ως τω κυριω και ουκ ανθρωποις
23 Whatever you do, work at it with all your heart, as working for the Lord, not for men

24 ειδοτες οτι απο κυριου απολημψεσθε την ανταποδοσιν της κλκρονομιας τω κυριω χριστω δουλευετε
24 since you know that you will receive an inheritance from the Lord as a reward. It is the Lord Christ you are serving

Col 4
7 τα κατ’ εμε παντα γνωρισει υμιν τυχικος ο αγαπητος αδελφος και πιστος διακονος και συνδουλος εν κυριω
7 Tychicus will tell you all the news about me. He is a dear brother, a faithful worker and fellow servant in the Lord

17 και ειπατε αρχιππω “βλεπε την διακονιαν ην παρελαβες εν κυριω ινα αυτην πληροις”
17 Tell Archippus: “See to it that you complete the work you have received in the Lord”

Eph 2
21 εν ω πασα οκοδομη συναρμολογουμενη αυξει εις ναον αγιον εν κυριω
21 In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple in the Lord

Eph 4
1 παρακαλω ουν υμας εγω ο δεσμιος εν κυριω αξιως περιπατησαι της κλησεως ης εκληθητε
1 As a prisoner for the Lord, then, I urge you to live a life worthy of the calling you have received

17 τουτο ουν λεγω και μαρτυρομαι εν κυριω μηκετι υμας περιπατειν [καθως] και τα εθνη περιπατει εν ματαιοτητι του νοος αυτων
17 So I tell you this, and insist on it in the Lord, that you must no longer live [just as] the Gentiles do, in the futility of their thinking

Eph 5
8 ητε γαρ ποτε σκοτος νυν δε φως εν κυριω ως τεκνα φωτος περιπατειτε
8 For you were once darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Live as children of light

10 δοκιμαζοντες τι εστιν ευαρεστον τω κυριω
10 and find out what pleases the Lord.

17 δια τουτο μη γινεσθε αφρονες αλλα συνιετε τι το θελημα του κυριου
17 Therefore do not be foolish, but understand what the Lord’s will is

19 λαλουντες εαυτοις ψαλμοις και υμνοις και ωδαις πνευματικας αδοντες και ψαλλοντες τη καρδια υμων τω κυριω
19 Speak to one another with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs. Sing and make music in your heart to the Lord

22 αι γυναικες τοις ιδιοις ανδρασιν ως τω κυριω
22 Wives, submit to your husbands as to the Lord

Eph 6
1 τα τεκνα υπακουετε τοις γονευσιν υμων εν κυριω τουτο γαρ εστιν δικαιον
1 Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right

4 και οι πατερες μη παροργιζετε τα τεκνα υμων αλλα εκτρεφετε αυτα εν παιδεια και νουθεσια κυριου
4 Fathers, do not exasperate your children; instead, bring them up in the training and instruction of the Lord

7 μετ’ ευνοιας δουλευοντες ως τω κυριω και ουκ ανθρωποις
7 Serve wholeheartedly, as if you were serving the Lord, not men

8 ειδοτες οτι εκαστος εαν τι ποιηση αγαθον τουτο κομισεται παρα κυριου ειτε δουλος ειτε ελευθερος
8 because you know that the Lord will reward everyone for whatever good he does, whether he is slave or free

10 του λοιπου ενδυναμουσθε εν κυριω και εν τω κρατει της ισχυος αυτου
10 Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power

21 ινα δε ειδητε και υμεις τα κατ εμε τι πρασσω παντα γνωρισει υμιν τυχικος ο αγαπητος αδελφος και πιστος διακονος εν κυριω
21 Tychicus, the dear brother and faithful servant in the Lord, will tell you everything, so that you also may know how I am and what I am doing

1 Tim 5 *This is translated as “the lord’s people” but in actuality it
is “the holy ones” or “saints” (αγιων).

9 No widow may be put on the list of widows unless she is over sixty, has been faithful to her husband,
10 and is well known for her good deeds, such as bringing up children, showing hospitality, washing the feet of [the Lord’s people], helping those in trouble and devoting herself to all kinds of good deeds.

2 Tim 1
16 May the Lord show mercy to the household of Onesiphorus, because he often refreshed me and was not ashamed of my chains.
16 δωη ελεος ο κυριος τω ονησιφορου οικω οτι πολλακις με ανεψυξεν και την αλυσιν μου ουκ επαισχυνθη

17 On the contrary, when he was in Rome, he searched hard for me until he found me.
17 αλλα γενομενος εν ρωμη σπουδαιως εζητησεν με και ευρεν

18 May the Lord grant that he will find mercy from the Lord on that day! You know very well in how many ways he helped me in Ephesus.
18 δωη αυτω ο κυριος ευρειν ελεος παρα κυριου εν εκεινη τη ημερα και οσα εν εφεσω διηκονησεν βελτιον συ γινωσκεις

2 Tim 2
7 Reflect on what I am saying, for the Lord will give you insight into all this.
7 νοει ο λεγω δωσει γαρ σοι ο κυριος συνεσιν εν πασιν

19 Nevertheless, God’s solid foundation stands firm, sealed with this inscription: “The Lord knows those who are his,” and, “Everyone who confesses the name of the Lord must turn away from wickedness.”
19 ο μεντοι στερεος θεμελιος του θεου εστηκεν εχων την σφραγιδα ταυτην εγνω κυριος τους οντας αυτου και αποστητω απο αδικιας πας ο ονομαζων το ονομα κυριου

22 Flee the evil desires of youth and pursue righteousness, faith, love and peace, along with those who call on the Lord out of a pure heart.
22 τας δε νεωτερικας επιθυμιας φευγε διωκε δε δικαιοσυνην πιστιν
αγαπην ειρηνην μετα των επικαλουμενων τον κυριον εκ καθαρας καρδιας

24 And the Lord’s servant must not be quarrelsome but must be kind to everyone, able to teach, not resentful.
24 δουλον δε κυριου ου δει μαχεσθαι αλλα ηπιον ειναι προς παντας διδακτικον ανεξικακον

2 Tim 3

11 persecutions, sufferings–what kinds of things happened to me in Antioch, Iconium and Lystra, the persecutions I endured. Yet the Lord rescued me from all of them.
11 τοις διωγμοις τοις παθημασιν οια μοι εγενετο εν αντιοχεια εν ικονιω εν λυστροις οιους διωγμους υπηνεγκα και εκ παντων με ερρυσατο ο κυριος

2 Tim 4
8 Now there is in store for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day–and not only to me, but also to all who have longed for his appearing.
8 λοιπον αποκειται μοι ο της δικαιοσυνης στεφανος ον αποδωσει μοι ο κυριος εν εκεινη τη ημερα ο δικαιος κριτης ου μονον δε εμοι αλλα και πασιν τοις ηγαπηκοσιν την επιφανειαν αυτου

14 Alexander the metalworker did me a great deal of harm. The Lord will repay him for what he has done.
14 αλεξανδρος ο χαλκευς πολλα μοι κακα ενεδειξατο αποδωσει αυτω ο κυριος κατα τα εργα αυτου

17 But the Lord stood at my side and gave me strength, so that through me the message might be fully proclaimed and all the Gentiles might hear it. And I was delivered from the lion’s mouth.
17 ο δε κυριος μοι παρεστη και ενεδυναμωσεν με ινα δι εμου το κηρυγμα πληροφορηθη και ακουσωσιν παντα τα εθνη και ερρυσθην εκ στοματος λεοντος

18 The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and will bring me safely to his heavenly kingdom. To him be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
18 ρυσεται με ο κυριος απο παντος εργου πονηρου και σωσει εις την βασιλειαν αυτου την επουρανιον ω η δοξα εις τους αιωνας των αιωνων αμην

22 The Lord be with your spirit. Grace be with you all.
22 ο κυριος μετα του πνευματος σου η χαρις μεθ υμων

So what to make of this? It is pretty confusing. Is Paul talking about Jesus or is he using “lord” as its traditional Jewish circumlocution for saying YHWH? Paul cannot be talking about Jesus when he quotes from the LXX and then qualifies it with “says the lord”. I don’t think that Paul thought that Jesus was present at the Exodus and killed people with snakes (1 Cor 10.9).

Another interesting point is that pseudo-Paul uses “our Lord” quite a bit in 1 Timothy. All of this makes me think that the unnamed “lord” in the LXX (as opposed to “lord god”) was thought of as a second deity that
Christians applied to Jesus. I wonder what Christianity would look like – if it would have even existed at all – had the translators of the LXX not translated YHWH as “lord” but approximated the pronunciation as close as possible in Greek.

 
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Posted by on December 29, 2010 in lord;

 
 
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